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Craniac Xtreme - Improve Memory Concentration & Brain Function, 15 pck, (Craniac Xtreme)

Craniac Xtreme -

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Craniac Xtreme - Improve Memory Concentration & Brain Function, 15 pck, (Craniac Xtreme)

Free Gift For Order Over $50. Check out our gift selection.

Jump start your cranium with Craniac Xtreme! Craniac Xtreme is a synergistic blend of brain nutrients designed to electrify your mind. Contained in each capsule are 12 mind blowing ingredients used to improve memory, concentration, and brain function. Get a mental edge and blow your competition away with Craniac Xtreme! 
 
Memory Enhancement 
Memory is largely dependant on the brain’s ability to make strong neuron-to-neuron communication. Neurotransmitters and Neuro-nutrients such as Acetylcholine, Phosphatidylserine (PS), Alpha-glycerylphosphoryl choline (AGPC), and DMAE aid the neurons in your brain to make strong neuron-to-neuron communication. 
 
Concentration & Brain Energy 
Multiple activities occur in the same time on the brain or fatigue could distract the brain function on concentration and focusing. Polygonum Multiflorum, N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine, and Gingko work to inhibit the over activity of neurotransmitters provides a calming effect and to refresh the brain cells from fatigue to allow better concentration. 
 
Administration of ALC decrease physical and mental fatigue, and improve concentration function. Malaguarnera 2007
 
When the brain is fatigued several important functions controlled by the brain such as concentration, mood, and cognition are affected. An increase in fuel supply to the brain and neurons can counteract brain fatigue. Ginsng, Gotu Kola, and Yerba Mate supply essentials to the mitochondria of brain cells to produce energy. 
 
Formulation of this product is based on Brain Foods & Neuron Nutritional Solution For Multitasking Skills

RESEARCH DATA
Research Behind The Natural Healing 
When neurons are properly supplied by essential nutrients and amino acids, they become more competent in achieving the ideal ‘alpha’ state of the mind. Research has shown that people who practice yoga and meditation for long periods of time can achieve an alpha state better while performing tasks...[read more..]

SUGGESTED USAGE
Take 2 capsules once daily. 
 
Warning: Do not take if pregnant or lactating. Consult with a health professional before taking this or any supplement. Keep out of reach of children. Store in a cool, dry place.

 

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Craniac Xtreme - Improve Memory Concentration & Brain Function, 15 pck, (Craniac Xtreme)

Free Gift For Order Over $50. Check out our gift selection.

Herbal Ingredients: 
 
Phosphatidylserine from Soy:
PS is a chemical substance that provides the building blocks for cell membranes, and neurotransmitter receptors. A nutrient to the brain cell, it enhances mental functions in young people [1], strengthens memory, boosts learning, increases vigilance and attention, intensifies concentration, increases mental acuity, semantic skills, and controls over mood. It improves age-related memory loss [2,3,4,5], Alzheimer's disease [3], slows the loss of brain functions and rejuvenates them [6].

Gingko Biloba:
Gingko prevents red blood cells and platelets from aggregating and forming clots. Gingko can also improve circulation in the tiny blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscles surrounding blood vessels, allowing more oxygen to flow to the brain and neurons.

Gingko had been long used as a supplement for memory enhancement [18], improved concentration [2], increased energy and elevation of mood [19]. Research on Ginkgo extracts and memory were faced with mixed results. However, when Ginkgo was combined with ginseng, the mixture was found to significantly improve memory [20,21].

This effect represented improvements to a number of different aspects of memory; including working and long-term memory. Studies have shown combining phosphatidylserine (PS) along with ginkgo might increase its efficacy [22].
Rodiola Rosea:
Rodiola is an adaptogen [23] and has antioxidant effects. It increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain, and helps repair the damage [24] caused by drugs, alcohol or hypoxia. It acts on the brain to enhance mental functions and improve memory [25]. It also acts on the muscles to improve exercise endurance and reverse fatigue [26].
Gota Kola:
Gota is commonly known as "food for the brain". It works as a stimulant and as an anti-oxidant [1]. The stimulate properties of Gotu Kola promote the brain's ability to focus [27], and provides anti-anxiety, anti-depressive and anti-stress effects. Its anti-oxidant properties can help protect the brain from the damaging effects of free radicals. Traditionally this herb has been used for its mild tranquilizing, anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects, [28] and to support the central nervous system.

Research has shown Gota Kola helps to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in healthy subjects [29,30]. And because of the way it stimulates the brain, it's also quite useful for treating depression.
Yerba Mate:
Yerba mate has been used as a beverage since the time of the ancient Indians of Brazil and Paraguay [31], and is still considered a national drink in several countries of South America. The primary active substances in Yerb mate, xanthine alkaloid [caffeine, theobromine and theophlline], are effective against physical and mental fatigue [32]. Yerba mate is indicated for the treatment of fatigue, asthenia, weight loss, depression, and headaches [33].

In addition, the leaf of yerba mate is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. The leaf of yerba mate has been demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation [34], particularly Low density lipoprotein (LDL) [35]. Oxidation of LDL is considered to be the initiating factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Ginseng:
Ginseng is widely used in Asia, China, Japan and Korean and regarded by professionals and the public as a stimulant. In traditional Chinese herbology, Panax ginseng was used to strengthen the lungs and digestion, calm the spirit, wake the mind, and increase overall energy. In the West many consider ginseng as an adaptogen [36].

An adaptogen helps the body adapt to stresses of various kinds, heat, cold, exertion, trauma, sleep deprivation, toxic exposure, radiation, infection, or psychological stress. Furthermore, an adaptogen should cause no side effects, be effective in treating a wide variety of illnesses, and help return an organism toward balance no matter what may have gone wrong. The active contents in ginseng are believed to be substances known as ginsenosides.

Different ginsenosides appear to have differing actions, and the exact mixture of ginsenosides in a given ginseng product may play a large role in its efficacy. Ginseng can increase the defense ability of the organism, promote healing, reduce the toxicity of certain chemicals, and increase the ability of analysis. Ginseng promotes cognitive functions [37], metal functions [38], and psychomotor performance. [39] Ginseng increases functions of the adrenal cortex, the immune response, the resistance to disease, and stimulates the pituitary gland to produce more sex hormones. [40].
Fo-Ti:
Polygonum multiflorum, known as Fo-Ti, is an adaptogen, antioxidant and immunostimulant. It improves cogmitive performance, [41] enhances learning, and memory, [42][43] and prevents brain fatigue.

Studies have shown that Fo-ti prevents the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the brain (the cause of Parkinson's disease)[44]. Fo-ti inhibits the growth of bacteria, increases laboratory animals' ability to adept to cold temperatures [45], and also showns antitumor, antioxidant, and immunostimulant effects.
Reference:
[1] Benton D et al. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78
[2] Crook T, Petrie W., Wells C et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991;41:644-649.
[2] Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on effecicacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano). 1993;5:123133.
[3] Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, et al. Double-bline randomized controlled study of phsophatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:136-140.
[4] Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration./ Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93.
[5] Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:130-134.
[6] Suzuki S et al. Oral administration of soybean PS reduces ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Jpn I Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;81[2]:237-9.
[7] Hagen, T.M., Ingersoll, R.T., Wehr, C.M., Lykkesfeldt, J., Vinarsky, V., Bartholomew, J.C., Song, M.H., & Ames, B.N. [1998]. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 9562-9566.
[8] Hagen, T.M., Liu, J., Lykkesfeldt, J., Wehr, C.M., Ingersoll, R.T., Vinarsky, V., Bartholomew, J.C., & Ames, B.N. [2002]. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 1870-1875.
[9] Gatti G, Barzaghi N et al. A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citicoline in normal volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1992 Sep;30[9]:331-5.
[10] De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dememtia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial./ Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25[1]:178-93.
[11] Schettini G. et al. Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alph-GPC, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmcol Biochem Behav 1922 Sep;43[1]:139-51.
[12] Caffarra P., et Al. The effect of Deanol on amnesic disorders. A preliminary trial [author's transl]. Ateneo Parmense 1980;51[4]:383-9.
[13] Dimpfel W., Hofmann HC, Proharka A, et al. Source density analysis of functional topographical EEG: Monitoring of congnitive drug action. Euro J Med Res 1996;Mar 19:1[6]:283-90.
[14] Dimpfel W. et al. Efficacy of DMAE containing Vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states. Eu J Med Res 2003;May 30[5]:183-91.
[15] Hagen TM et al. Mitochodrial decay in the aging rat heart evidence for improvement by dietary supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine and/or lipoic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 April;959:491-507.
[16] Hagen TM et al. Feeding Acetyl-l-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99[4]:18705.
[17] Sandeep, T. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, March 29, 2004, vol 101.
[18] Brautigam MR, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Gingko biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 1998;5:425-434.
[19] Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology [Berl] 2000;151:416-423.l.
[20] Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginko biloba extract on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2000;6:219-229.
[21] Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology [Berl]. 2000 Nov;152[4]:353-61.
[22] Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, et al. Acute cognitive effects of standardized ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Apr.25.
[23] Spasov AA, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:85-89.
[24] Fintelmann V, Gruenwald J. Efficacy and tolerability of a rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv Ther. 2007;24:929=939.
[25] Shevtsov VA, Et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiolarosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomeicine. 2003;10:95-105.
[26] De Bock K, et al. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14:298-307.
[27] Awang, DVC. Gotu kola. Can Pharm J 1998; 131[7]: 42-46.
[28] Appa Rao MVR et al. The effect of Centella asiatica on the general mental ability of mentally retarded children. Ind J Psychiatry 1977; 19[4]:54-59.
[29] Sarma DNK et al. Antistress activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica extracts. Phytother Res 1996; 10:181-183.
[30] Bradwein J et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of gotu kola [Centella asiatica] on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharm 2000; 20[6]:680-684.
[31] Vasque, A. et al. Studies on mate drinking. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1986; 18:267-272.
[32] Alikaridis, F. Natural constituent of Ilex species. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987;20[2]:121-144.
[33] Fossati, C. On the virtue and therapeutic properties of Yerba mate. Clin. Ter. 1976;78[3]:265-272.
[34] Filip, R., et al Antioxidant activity of Ilex paraguariensis and relaed species. Nutr. Res. 2000;20[10]:1437-1446.
[35] Gugliucci, A. Antioxidant effects of Ilex paraguarientsis: induction of decreased oxidability of human LDL in vivo. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996;224[2]:338-344.
[36] Forgo I, Kayasseh L, staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
[37] Sorensen H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res. 1966:57;959-968.
[38] Siegl C, Siegl HJ. The possible revision of impaired mental abilities in old age: a double-blind study with Panax ginseng. Therapiewoche. 1979;29:4209-4216.
[39] D'Angelo L et al. A double blind,placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15-22.
[40] Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:375-379.
[41] Chan YC et al. Polygonum multiflorum [Fo-ti] extracts improve cognitive performance in senescence accelerated mice. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31[2]:171-9.
[42] Chan YC, Cheng FC, Wang MF. Beneficial effects of different Polygonum multiflorum Thunb [ Fo-Ti ] extracts on memory and hippocampus morphology. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol [Tokyo]. 2002 Dec;48[6]:491-7.
[43] Wang R et al. Changes in hippocampal synapses and learning-memory abilities in age-increasing rats and effects of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside in aged rats. Neuroscience. 2007 Nov 23;149[4]:739-46. Epub 2007 Sep 12.
[44] Li M, Du XP, Ye H. Protective effect of polygonum multiflorum thunb on the cerebral cholinergic neurofibers in rats. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Aug;28[4]:361-4.
[45] Ling S, et al. Effects of four medicinal herbs on human vascular endothelial cells in culture. Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 29;128[3]:350-8. Epub 2007 Aug.
 
 
Proprietary Blend 1000mg 
Chinese White Ginseng, Fo-Ti, Gotu Kola, Ginkgo Biloba, Yerba Mate, Licorice, Rhodiola Rosea, N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Phosphatidylserine, Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline, DMAE 
 
Phosphatidylserine from Soy 
PS is a chemical substance that provides building block for cell membranes, and neurotransmitter receptors. It is a nutrient to the brain cell. It enhances mental function in young people [1], strengthens memory, boosts learning, increases vigilance and attention, intensifies concentration, increases mental acuity, semantic skills, and controls over mood. It improves age-related memory loss [2,3,4,5], Alzheimer¡¦s disease[3], slows the loss of brain functions and rejuvenates them [6]. 
 
 
N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine 
ALC is a naturally occurring amino acid synthesized in the human brain, liver, and kidney. It works as fuel to the mitochondria (the structure in the cells in manufacturing energy) of brain cell to enhance brain cell energy [7]. ALC helps maintain a higher level of mental performance: cognition, reception, interpretation, focusing and memory, and helps to stimulate the growth of new brain cells.  
 
It removes toxic accumulations of metabolic wastes from mitochondria, [8] keeping these organelles healthy and functioning at their best. It slows down the progression of brain cells aging. It also helps in the skeletal muscle recovery from training and injuries and benefits to chronic fatigue syndrome. 
 
 
Alpha-glyceryl phosphoryl choline  
AGPC is a precursor of Acetycholine. Acetycholine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical substance that sends messages and commands concerning emotions and behavior throughout the brain. Acetylcholine is a key chemical which promotes memory in the brain. AGPC, is a potent form of choline [9], derived from soy lecithin, easily cross the blood-brain barrier from the blood to the brain to make acetycholine.  
 
Research has shown AGPC to be more effective than citicholine and with very few side effects. AGPC also has been shown to enhance the release of human growth hormone, the master anti-aging hormone. AGPC improves brain development during pregnancy, increases mental alertness, and sharpness, and enhances memory and concentration [10]. Research with athletes has shown that it improves coordination, balance, and endurance [11]. 
 
 
Dimethylaminoethanol 
DMAE is chemically similar to choline [12] but it crosses the blood-brain barrier and gets into the brain cells more rapidly. It is a precursor of neurotransmitter Acetycholine. It increases alertness, improves concentration, reduces anxiety, improves leaning and attention span, and normalizes brain-wave pattern [13,14]. 
 
 
Alpha Lipoic Acid  
ALA is a fatty acid naturally found inside every cell in the body. It is needed by the body to produce the energy for our body¡¦s normal functions. ALA is bound to protein and functions as a cofactor for several important mitochondria enzymes [15]. ALA converts blood sugar into energy. ALA is also a potent antioxidant [16,17], a substance that protect against the elevated levels harmful chemicals called free radicals produced from the increase in metabolism.  
 
ALA increases the formation of glutathione, an important intracellular antioxidant that also play a role in the detoxification and elimination of potential carcinogen and toxin. Unlike the more common antioxidants vitamin C and Vitamin E, ALA functions in water and fat and able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutatione after they have been used up.  
 
 
Gingko Biloba  
Gingko prevents red blood cells and platelets from aggregating to form clots. Gingko also can improve circulation in the tiny blood vessels by inducing relaxation of the smooth muscles surrounding blood vessels. These actions allow more oxygen to supply to the brain and to the neurons.  
 
Gingko had been long used as a supplement for enhancement of memory [18], improvement of concentration[2], increasing of energy and elevation of mood[19]. Research on Ginkgo extracts and memory were faced with mixed results. However, when Ginkgo is combined with ginseng, the mixture was found to significantly improve memory [20,21].  
 
This effect represented improvements to a number of different aspects of memory; including working and long-term memory. Studies have shown combining phosphatidylserine (PS) along with ginkgo might increase its efficacy[22]. 
 
 
Rodiola Rosea 
Rodiola is an adaptogen [23]and has antioxidant effect. It increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain, and helps repair the damage [24] cause by drug, alcohol or hypoxia. It acts on the brain to enhance mental function and improve memory [25]. It also acts on the muscle to improve exercise endurance and reverse fatigue [26]. 
 
 
Gota Kola  
Gota is commonly known as ¡§food for the brain¡¨. It works as a stimulant and as an anti-oxidant[1]. The stimulate property of Gotu Kola promotes the brain¡¦s ability to focus [27], and provides anti-anxiety, anti-depressive and anti-stress effects. The anti-oxidant properties can help prevent the brain from the damage effect of free radicals. Traditionally this herb has been used for its mild tranquilizing, anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects [28] to support the central nervous system.  
 
Research shown Gota Kola helps to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in healthy subjects [29,30]. And because of the way it stimulates the brain, it¡¦s quite useful for treating depression too. 
 
 
Yerba Mate  
Yerba mate has been used as a beverage since the time of the ancient Indians of Brazil and Paraguay [31], and still is considered a national drink in several countries of South America. The primary active substances in Yerb mate, xanthine alkaloid [caffeine, theobromine and theophlline], are effective on physical and mental fatigue [32]. Yerba mate is indicated for the treatment of fatigue, asthenia, weight loss, depression, and headaches [33].  
 
In addition, the leaf of yerba mate is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. The leaf of yerba mate has been demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation [34], particularly Low density lipoprotein (LDL) [35]. Oxidation of LDL is considered to be the initiating factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.  
 
 
Ginseng  
Ginseng is widely used in Asia, China, Japan and Korean and regarded by the professionals and the public as a stimulant. In traditional Chinese herbology, Panax ginseng was used to strengthen the lung and digestion, calm the spirit, wake the mind, and increase overall energy. In the West many consider ginseng as an adaptogen [36].  
 
The term adaptogen refers to ¡§ An adaptogen should help the body adapt to stresses of various kinds, whether heat, cold, exertion, trauma, sleep deprivation, toxic exposure, radiation, infection, or psychological stress. Furthermore, an adaptogen should cause no side effects, be effective in treating a wide variety of illnesses, and help return an organism toward balance no matter what may have gone wrong.¡¨ The active content in ginseng are believed to be substances known as ginsenosides.  
 
Different ginsenosides appear to have differing actions, and the exact mixture of ginsenosides in a given ginseng product may play a large role in its efficacy. Ginseng can increase the defense ability of the organism, promote healing and reduce the toxicity of certain chemicals. It increases the ability of analysis. Ginseng promotes cognitive functions [37], metal functions [38], and psychomotor performance [39] promote Ginseng increases the function of adrenal cortex, the immunity response, increases the resistance to disease, and stimulates the pituitary gland to produce more sex hormone [40]. 
 
 
Fo-Ti  
Polygonum multiflorum, known as Fo-Ti, is an adaptogen, antioxidant and immunostimulant. It improves cogmitive performance [41] enhances learning and memory [42][43] and prevents brain fatigue.  
 
Studies also shown the evidence that Fo-ti prevent the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the brain (cause of Parkinson disease)[44]. Fo-ti inhibits the growth of bacteria, increases laboratory animals¡¦ ability to adept to cold temperatures [45], and also shown antitumor, antioxidant, and immunostimulant effects.  
 
 
REFERENCE 
[1] Benton D et al. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78  
[2] Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on effecicacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano). 1993;5:123133. 
[3] Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, et al. Double-bline randomized controlled study of phsophatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:136-140. 
[4] Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93.  
[5] Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer¡¦s disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:130-134. 
[6] Suzuki S et al. Oral administration of soybean PS reduces ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Jpn I Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;81[2]:237-9 
[7]Hagen, T.M., Ingersoll, R.T., Wehr, C.M., Lykkesfeldt, J., Vinarsky, V., Bartholomew, J.C., Song, M.H., & Ames, B.N. [1998]. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 9562-9566 
[8] Hagen, T.M., Liu, J., Lykkesfeldt, J., Wehr, C.M., Ingersoll, R.T., Vinarsky, V., Bartholomew, J.C., & Ames, B.N. [2002]. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 1870-1875 
[9] Gatti G, Barzaghi N et al. A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citicoline in normal volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1992 Sep;30[9]:331-5. 
[10] De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer¡¦s dememtia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25[1]:178-93 
[11] Schettini G. et al. Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alph-GPC, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmcol Biochem Behav 1922 Sep;43[1]:139-51.  
[12] Caffarra P., et Al. The effect of Deanol on amnesic disorders. A preliminary trial [author¡¦s transl]. Ateneo Parmense 1980;51[4]:383-9. 
[13] Dimpfel W., Hofmann HC, Proharka A, et al. source density analysis of functional topographical EEG: Monitoring of congnitive drug action. Euro J Med Res 1996;Mar 19:1[6]:283-90. 
[14] Dimpfel W. et al. Efficacy of DMAE containing Vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states. Eu J Med Res 2003;May 30[5]:183-91. 
[15] Hagen TM et al. Mitochodrial decay in the aging rat heart evidence for improvement by dietary supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine and/or lipoic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 April;959:491-507.  
[16] Hagen TM et al. Feeding Acetyl-l-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99[4]:18705 
[17] Sandeep, T. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, March 29, 2004, vol 101.  
[18] Brautigam MR, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Gingko biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 1998;5:425-434. 
[19] Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology [Berl] 2000;151:416-423.l  
[20] Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginko biloba extract on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2000;6:219-229. 
[21] Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology [Berl]. 2000 Nov;152[4]:353-61 
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